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Quakers & the Political Process

An exhibit, July to Dec. 2000


Quakers & the Political Process
Overview & Introduction
Who are the Quakers?
History, Beliefs & Testimonies
Quaker West New Jersey
Democracy in 1677
Penn's Holy Experiment
Seed of a Nation
Quaker Political Contribution
From Governance to Advocacy
Quaker Presidents
Hoover & Nixon

Links Pages
Bibliography
Archives

Exhibit 2000 Working Group
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Bibliography

Printable copy
We're compiling a bibliography of books on the topic of "Quakers and the Political Process." Please send your suggestions for citations to: Kirk Wattles. Later, we'll pare the list down to a more focussed set, still fairly comprehensive.

Meanwhile, PYM's Henry J. Cadbury Library has a booklist project which already has many citations, for which we may include the most relevant links.

E.g.,
The Biblical Basis of Pacifism
Biblical Views of Justice and the Social Order
Central America
Leadership
The Middle East
Quakers and the Draft
Quakers and Prison Reform, and Restorative Justice
Quakers in the American Civil War
Quaker Work for Racial Equality
The Underground Railroad
War Tax Resistance
and Witnesses for Peace

Sections of this webpage


Author(s) Date*      Title
Primary Sources
(Click on author's name for the more complete reference.)
    17th c.
             Edward Burrough 1658 The Epistle To The Reader.
Margaret A. Fell 1992 ed. A Sincere and Constant Love.
George Fox 1908 ed. Journal of George Fox.
1975 ed. Journal of George Fox.
Isaac Penington 1995-'97 ed.  Works.
William Penn 1975 ed. William Penn: Selections from his Political Writings.
1681 True Spiritual Liberty.
1999 ed. A Key.
    18th c.
John Woolman 1898 ed. The Journal of John Woolman.
    19th c.
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 1806 Book of Discipline.
    20th c.
American Friends Service Committee 1967 Peace in Vietnam.
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting 1997 Faith and Practice.
James M. Read 1960 The Responsibility of a Quaker College to Train for World Leadership.
Ben Richmond 1991 A Guide for Friends on Conscientious Objection to War.
Phillips Ruopp 1959 Witness in Washington.
Edward F. Snyder 1994 Private Testimony and Public Policy.
Richard Karl Ullman 1963 The Dilemmas of a Reconciler.
Norman J. Whitney 1957 Into Great Waters.


Secondary Sources - focussing on Friends
(Click on author's name for the more complete reference.)
    Over the centuries
Margaret Hope Bacon 1985 The Quiet Rebels.
Margaret Hope Bacon 1986 Mothers of Feminism.
H. Barbour & J.W. Frost 1988 The Quakers.
Paul Barton-Kriese 1971 Truth-Speaking and Power among Friends.
Peter Brock 1970 Pioneers of the Peaceable Kingdom.
G. Von Schulze Gaevernitz 1930 Democracy and Religion.
Dorothy Hutchinson 1955 From Where They Sit.
Jack Powelson 1988 Dialogue with Friends.
Gerald Priestland 1990 Reasonable Uncertainty.
John Punshon 1990 Testimony and Tradition.
Frederick Barnes Tolles 1956 Quakerism and Politics.
Jo Vallentine 1990 Quakers in Politics: Pragmatism or Principle?
Robert H. Wilson 1981 Philadelphia Quakers, 1681-1981.
    17th c.
William G. Bittle 1986 James Nayler, 1618-1660.
Mary Maples Dunn 1967 William Penn: Politics and Conscience.
John H. Ferguson 1995 Politics Quaker Style.
Douglas Gwyn 1995 The Covenant Crucified.
Craig W. Horle 1988 The Quakers and the English Legal System, 1660-1688.
H. Larry Ingle 1994 First Among Friends.
Barry Reay 1985 The Quakers and the English Revolution.
William Sewel 1799 ed.   History of Friends.
    18th c.
Richard Bauman 1971 For the Reputation of Truth.
Jack D. Marietta 1984 The Reformation of American Quakerism.
Isaac Sharpless 1898 A Quaker Experiment in Government.
1899 Volume II. The Quakers in the Revolution.
1919 Political Leaders of Provincial Pennsylvania.
David Swatzler 2000 A Friend Among the Senecas
    19th c.
Dorothy Sterling 1991 Ahead of Her Time: Abby Kelly and the Politics of Antislavery.
    20th c.
Robert O. Byrd 1960 Quaker Ways in Foreign Policy.
1991 John Bright: Faithful Friend and Fruitful Politics.
John H. Miller 1965 No Cloak, No Dagger.
Kevin E. Stahlman 1985 A Comparison of the Social Concerns Between the American and British Society of Friends.
J. Duncan Wood 1962 Building the Institutions of Peace.
        1982 Quakerism, A Way of Life.
    Contemporary
Donna Kyle Anderton 1995 Emerging Currents in the Asia-Pacific.
Kenneth E. Boulding 1986 Mending the World.
Geoffrey Hubbard 1991 Patterns and Examples.
Michael J. Sheeran 1983 Beyond Majority Rule.
J. Duncan Wood 1979 Quakers in the Modern World.


Secondary Sources - Friends in larger context
(Click on author's name for the more complete reference.)
    Over the centuries
Kevin Phillips 1999 The Cousins' Wars.
    17th c.
G.E. Aylmer 1986 Rebellion or Revolution?
Philip F. Gura 1984 A Glimpse of Sion's Glory.
Christopher Hill 1972 The World Turned Upside Down.
Ronald Hutton 1985 The Restoration.
Mark Kishlansky 1996 A Monarchy Transformed.
T.B. Macaulay 1849 The History of England. (available online)
    18th c.
Fred Anderson 2000 Crucible of War.
    19th c.
 
    20th c.
 
    Contemporary
 


* - Date given above is the earliest, unless marked "ed." as a later edition.

Bibliography, Alphabetically sorted:
| ^ |   American Friends Service Committee.
Peace in Vietnam: A New Approach in Southeast Asia. New York: Hill and Wang , 1967. 132p.

| ^ |   Anderson, Fred.
Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf, 2000.
  Sets the Quaker withdrawal from Pennsylvania government in the larger context of imperial expansion during the "French and Indian" war. Includes material on the Easton Conference, organized by Friends during the war, which allowed for British military victory in what became western Pennsylvania.
| ^ |   Anderton, Donna Kyle.
Emerging Currents in the Asia-Pacific. James Backhouse lecture # 31. [Hobart, Tasmania]: Australia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends , 1995. 107p.

| ^ |   Aylmer, G. E.
Rebellion or Revolution: England 1640-1660. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

| ^ |   Bacon, Margaret Hope.
Mothers of Feminism: The Story of Quaker Women in America, second edition. Philadelphia: Friends General Conference, 1986. (Originally published by Harper & Row.)

| ^ |   Bacon, Margaret Hope.
The Quiet Rebels: The Story of the Quakers in America. Includes an introduction, "The Quaker Contribution to Nonviolent Action." Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1985.

| ^ |   Barbour, Hugh, and J. William Frost.
The Quakers, paperback edition. Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 1994. (First edition. Westport, Ct: Greenwood, 1988.)

| ^ |   Barton-Kriese, Paul.
Truth-Speaking and Power among Friends. Chicago, Il.: Progressive Johns Hopkins , 1971. 52p.

| ^ |   Bauman, Richard.
For the Reputation of Truth: Politics, Religion and Conflict Among the Pennsylvania Quakers, 1750-1800. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1971. 258p.

| ^ |   Bittle, William G.
James Nayler, 1618-1660: The Quaker Indicted by Parliament. York, England: William Sessions Ltd. (in association with Friends United Press, Richmond, Indiana) 1986.

| ^ |   Boulding, Kenneth Ewart.
Mending the World: Quaker Insights on the Social Order. Pendle Hill pamphlet #266. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill, 1986. 33p.

| ^ |   Brock, Peter.
Pioneers of the Peaceable Kingdom: The Quaker Peace Testimony from the Colonial Era to the First World War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970.

| ^ |   Burrough, Edward.
"The Epistle To The Reader." Prefatory epistle to The Great Mystery of the Great Whore of Babylon Unfolded. London: Tho. Simmons, 1658. (online)
  Edward Burrough was one of the more politically engaged of the early Friends, who at the age of twenty came down to London from the north of England to spread the Quaker witness. His epistle makes a strong case for religious liberty, arguing that "We should agree to have the liberty, freely and soberly to object against the priests..."
| ^ |   Byrd, Robert O.
John Bright: Faithful Friend and Fruitful Politics. Canadian Quaker pamphlet #35. Argenta, B.C.: Argenta Press, 1991. 29p.

| ^ |   Byrd, Robert O.
Quaker Ways in Foreign Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto , 1960. 230p.

| ^ |   Dunn, Mary Maples.
William Penn: Politics and Conscience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University , 1967. 206p.

| ^ |   Fell, Margaret Askew.
A Sincere and Constant Love: an Introduction to the Work of Margaret Fell. Edited and with introductions by Terry H.S. Wallace. Richmond, Indiana: Friends United Press, 1992.

| ^ |   Ferguson, John H.
Politics Quaker Style: A History of the Quakers from 1624 to 1718. San Bernardino, Ca.: Borgo Press , 1995. 208p.

| ^ |   Fox, George.
The Journal of George Fox Edited by Rufus M. Jones. With an essay by Henry J. Cadbury, 1963. Glossary-Index, 1983. Reprinted from the 1908 edition. Richmond, In.: Friends United Press, 1976. (online)

The Journal of George Fox Edited by John L. Nickalls. With an epilogue by Henry J. Cadbury and an introduction by Geoffrey F. Nuttall. Philadelphia, Pa.: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends with permission of London Yearly Meeting of RSoF, 1995. First printed, being published by the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1952. Reprinted by London Yearly Meeting with minor corrections, 1975.
  Written by Fox later in life. Edited after his death by Thomas Ellwood, with oversight by the Second-day Morning Meeting, and published in 1694. Two editions (mentioned above) are in print. The 1908 Rufus Jones edition is abridged and rewritten in places. The Nickalls edition includes passages that were edited out when it was first published.
| ^ |   Gaevernitz, G. Von Schulze.
Democracy and Religion: A Study in Quakerism. Swarthmore lecture, 1930. London: Allen & Unwin, 1930. 96p.

| ^ |   Gura, Philip F.
A Glimpse of Sion's Glory: Puritan Radicalism in New England 1620-1660. Middletown, Ct: Wesleyan University Press, 1984.

| ^ |   Gwyn, Douglas.
The Covenant Crucified: Quakers and the Rise of Capitalism. Wallingford, PA: Pendle Hill Publications, 1995.

| ^ |   Hill, Christopher.
The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1975. (First published by Maurice Temple Smith, 1972.)

| ^ |   Horle, Craig W.
The Quakers and the English Legal System, 1660-1688. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1988.
  Considers the sophisticated response that early Friends made when faced with a legal establishment determined to stamp their movement out.
| ^ |   Hubbard, Geoffrey.
Patterns and Examples: Quaker Attitudes and European Opportunities. Swarthmore lecture, 1991. London: Quaker Home Service , 1991.

| ^ |   Hutchinson, Dorothy.
From Where They Sit. Pendle Hill pamphlet #84. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill, 1955. 32p.

| ^ |   Hutton, Ronald.
The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales 1658-1667. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.
  Reviews the restoration of monarchy, following Reay in seeing the radical Quaker movement as an important trigger for this reaction.
| ^ |   Ingle, H. Larry.
First Among Friends: George Fox and the Creation of Quakerism. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  A biography of George Fox by a professional historian and Friend, who tries to be true to both sets of peers. Much material on the political context and content of the early Quaker witness.
| ^ |   Kishlansky, Mark.
A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603-1714. London: Penguin, 1996. (Volume VI of The Penguin History of Britain)

| ^ |   Macaulay, Thomas Babington.
The History of England from The Accession of James II. Vol. 1. Originally published 1849.

| ^ |   Marietta, Jack D.
The Reformation of American Quakerism, 1748-1783. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984.

| ^ |   Miller, John H.
No Cloak, No Dagger: Recent Quaker Experience in East-West Encounters. London: Society of Friends, East West Relations Committee , 1965.

| ^ |   Penington, Isaac.
Works of Isaac Penington. In four volumes. Glenside, PA: Quaker Heritage Press, 1995-97. (online)
  The eldest son of the Sir Isaac Penington, Lord Mayor of London in 1642-43 and an active puritan politician in the Commonwealth era, Isaac Penington the Younger is regarded as one of the more mystical of the early Friends. Some of his work is more politically focussed, for instance his letter To the Parliament, the Army, and all the Well-affected in the Nation, who have been faithful to the Good Old Cause, written in 1659 before monarchy was restored to England.
| ^ |   Penn, William.
William Penn, 17th Century Founding Father: Selections from his Political Writings. Edited by Edwin Bronner. Pendle Hill pamphlet 204. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill, 1975. 36p.

| ^ |   Penn, William.
True Spiritual Liberty. Condensed by Lewis Benson. Philadelphia: The Tract Association of Friends, n.d.
  Condensed from "A Brief Examination and State of Liberty Spiritual Both with respect to Persons in their private capacity and in their Church Society and Communion," 1681. Available online.
| ^ |   Penn, William.
A Key: Opening the Way to Every Capacity; How to Distinguish the Religion Professed by the People Called Quakers, from the Perversions and Misrepresentations of their Adversaries. Philadelphia: The Tract Association of Friends, 1999. 36p.
  Available online, it includes Penn's response to the allegation that the Quakers are enemies of all government.
| ^ |   Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.
Rules of Discipline of the Yearly Meeting of Friends held in Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Kimber, Conrad & Co., 1806. (online)

Included in The Old Discipline: Nineteenth-Century Friends' Disciplines in America. Glenside, Pa.: Quaker Heritage Press, 1999.
The Old Discipline republishes the 19th-century Disciplines of eight yearly meetings in America -- New England (established 1661), Baltimore (1672), Philadelphia (1687), New York (1695), North Carolina (1698), Virginia (1702), Ohio (1813), and Indiana (1821) -- and tracks revisions in these during the century.
    Philadelphia's Rules of Discipline are available online from the Quaker Heritage Press website. Arranged alphabetically by topic, these include rules on arbitrations, civil government, law, negroes or slaves, oaths, schools, trade, and war. Updates during the 19th century are also shown.
| ^ |   Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.
Faith and Practice: A Book of Christian Discipline, revised edition. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1997. (Adopted 1955, revised 1972 and 1997.) (online)

| ^ |   Phillips, Kevin.
The Cousins' Wars: Religion, Politics, and the Triumph of Anglo America. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

| ^ |   Powelson, John P.
Dialogue with Friends by Jack Powelson. Boulder, Co.: Horizon Society , 1988. 164p.

| ^ |   Priestland, Gerald.
Reasonable Uncertainty: A Quaker Approach to Doctrine. Swarthmore lecture, 1990. London: Friends Home Service , 1982. 94p.

| ^ |   Punshon, John.
Testimony and Tradition: Some Aspects of Quaker Spirituality. Swarthmore lecture, 1990. London: Quaker Home Service , 1990. 94p.

| ^ |   Read, James M.
The Responsibility of a Quaker College to Train for World Leadership. Greensboro, NC: Guilford College Press , 1960. 30p.

| ^ |   Reay, Barry.
The Quakers and the English Revolution. Forward by Christopher Hill. London: Temple Smith, 1985.

| ^ |   Richmond, Ben.
A Guide for Friends on Conscientious Objection to War. Richmond, In: Friends United Meeting, 1991.

| ^ |   Ruopp, Phillips.
Private Testimony and Public Policy: An Individual View of the International Predicament. Pendle Hill pamphlet #105. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill, 1959. 32p.

| ^ |   Sewel, William.
The History of the Rise, Increase, and Progress of the Christian People called Quakers, Intermixed with Several Remarkable Occurrences. Fourth edition, in two volumes. London: James Phillips and Son, 1799.
  Also known as Sewel's History of Friends, this was one of their first histories, written in (~1716). Sewel's family, living in Amsterdam, were part of the wider Quaker movement, and in his history he includes the text of various primary source documents that he had collected during his lifetime.
| ^ |   Sharpless, Isaac.
A Quaker Experiment in Government. Philadelphia: Alfred J. Ferris, 1898. 251p.
  A history of Quaker government in Pennsylvania, starting with William Penn joining the Friends in 1666 to the withdrawal from government a century later, written by the President of Haverford College.
| ^ |   Sharpless, Isaac.
A Quaker Experiment in Government. Volume II, The Quakers in the Revolution. Philadelphia: T. S. Leach & Co., 1899. 155p.

| ^ |   Sharpless, Isaac.
Political Leaders of Provincial Pennsylvania. New York: Macmillan, 1919. 248p.

| ^ |   Sheeran, Michael J., S.J.
Beyond Majority Rule: Voteless Decisions in the Religious Society of Friends Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1983.

| ^ |   Snyder, Edward F.
Witness in Washington: Fifty Years of Friendly Persuasion. Richmond, In.: Friends United Press , 1994. 281p.

| ^ |   Stahlman, Kevin E.
A Comparison of the Social Concerns Between the American and British Society of Friends: 1972 to Present. Naperville, Il.: North Central College , 1985.

| ^ |   Sterling, Dorothy.
Ahead of Her Time: Abby Kelly and the Politics of Antislavery. New York: Norton , 1991. 436p.

| ^ |   Swatzler, David.
A Friend Among the Senecas: The Quaker Mission to Cornplanter's People. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books , 2000. 272p. (See online description.)

| ^ |   Tolles, Frederick Barnes.
Quakerism and Politics. Ward lecture #7. Greensboro, NC: Guilford College , 1956. 22p.

| ^ |   Ullman, Richard Karl.
The Dilemmas of a Reconciler: Serving the East-West Conflict. Pendle Hill pamphlet #131. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill, 1963. 24p.

| ^ |   Vallentine, Jo.
Quakers in Politics: Pragmatism or Principle? James Backhouse lecture #26. Alderley, Queensland: Margaret Fell , 1990. 84p.

| ^ |   Whitney, Norman J.
Into Great Waters. Speech delivered at Arch Street Meeting House. William Penn lecture, 1957. Philadelphia: Young Friends Movement , 1957.

| ^ |   Wilson, Robert H.
Philadelphia Quakers, 1681-1981. Design by Raymond A. Ballinger. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1981.

| ^ |   Wood, J. Duncan.
Building the Institutions of Peace. Swarthmore lecture, 1962. London: Allen & Unwin , 1962. 101p.

| ^ |   Wood, J. Duncan.
Quakers in the Modern World: The Relevance of Quaker Beliefs to the Problems of the Modern World. James Backhouse lecture #15. [Hobart, Tasmania]: Australia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends , 1979. 10p.

| ^ |   Woolman, John.
The Journal of John Woolman. Edited and with an Introduction by Alexander Smellie. Appreciation by John G. Whittier. London: Andrew Melrose, 1898. (online)

| ^ |   NAME, editor.
Quakerism, A Way of Life: In Homage to Sigrid Helliesen Lund on Her 90th Birthday, February 23, 1982. As, Norway: Kvekerforlaget, 1982. 208p.


Sources

Additional text about sources of information on Quakers and the political process and contemporary Quaker witness. Addresses and weblinks will be included.

Items available from the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Library
1515 Cherry Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102
215-241-7219 or 7220, e-mail: HYPERLINK mailto:library@pym.org library@pym.org
web address: HYPERLINK http://www.pym.org/library www.pym.org/library

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